Germination and seed bank analysis of Zostera marina Bachelor Thesis in the subject Biology Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel Referee: Prof. Dr. Ulrich Sommer Co-Referee: Prof. Dr. Thorsten Reusch Supervised by: Dr. Anna- Christina Bockelmann submitted by Eylem Elma Kiel June 2011 28. i. Pollen grains – 10, ii. Vallisneria & Hydrilla (fresh water), Zostera (marine sea-grasses) etc. • Pollen grains released into the surface of the water and carried to the stigma by the air current as inVallisneria. Entomophily (insect Pollination) The important pollinating insects are bees, butterflies, moths, wasps, bettles etc. It has long, elongated and needle-like pollen grains which are without exine. In Zostera, female flowers remain submerged in water and the pollen grains are released inside the water. Pollen viability was studied by taking pollen from dehiscing anthers in the field. At the site of pollen tube emergence, the pollen grain wall is eroded and the tube wall initiated. Ex: Zostera, Vallisneria Characters: Flowers are small and inconspicuous. The contents of pollen grain move into pollen tube. (ii) In angiosperms, pollen tube is normally an unbranched structure which usually persists after fertilisation. [True/False] Answer/Explanation: False. [True/False] Answer/Explanation: True. North Holland, Amsterdam. Amphibolis has tubular pollen exceeding up to 5 mm long (Ducker et al., 1978). Google Scholar . Each pollen grain grows and provides two male gametes for fertilisation of an ovule. In Zostera marina, the pollen grains are elongated (upto 2,500 mm), needle like and without exine. Placentation apical. The pollen grains of pines and other conifers are winged, and the pollen grains of seagrass species, like Zostera spp., are filamentous and said to hold the record for longest pollen grains. Search for jobs related to Zostera pollen or hire on the world's largest freelancing marketplace with 18m+ jobs. It occurs mostly in the aquatic plants like Vallisneria, Hydrilla and Zostera etc. Deposition of callose is induced in the stigma cells and stylar transmitting tissue cells adjacent to the pollen tube. The stigmas are also long. [True/False] Answer/Explanation. In seagrasses, both the male gametes (pollen grain) and the female flower remains inside the water. (iii) Intine is the inner, pectocellulosic layer of pollen grain wall which is destroyed during acetolysis. water surface-pollinated) pollen grains are spherical or reniform and large, while hydrophilous (i.e. [True/False] - 17169941 28. Examples: Ceratophyllum, Najas Zostera and Hydrilla Specific gravity is found in pollen grains so they remains suspended in water. In marine angiosperms, Zostera marina has tubular pollen exceeding 2,500 ^m in length and 3-4 ^m in diameter. Zoophily: When the pollination brings by animals, it is called zoophily. (iv) Exine layer of pollen grain comprises of an outer non-sculptured layer sexine and an inner sculptured layer tectum. [True/False] Answer/Explanation: True. They are shed under water. In Zostera, the pollen grains are long and ribbon-like and released inside the water. Z. marina beds develop on firm sand, sometimes mixed sediments and usually grow below the low water spring tidal limit. 3. Underwater pollination A and B eelgrass (Zostera). Answer: Explaination: True. Generally in zoophillous plants, flowers are very large, attractive and maximum number of nectar glands are present (more than entomophillous). Male seagrass flowers release pollen from structures called stamens into the water. Zostera sp. When they reach the stigma, they oil around it and germinate. Eg: Zostera (sea horse) 2. Log in. In Zostera, the pollen grains are long and ribbon-like and released inside the water. It is further divided into two parts: Epihydrophily: Pollination occurring on the water surface. Pollen grains lacking exine, and dispersed in the sea as long filaments. Nectar and odor are absent. While spherical pollen must be directly upstream of the female flower to pollinate it, longer thread-like pollen grains can be caught in the flow and eddies of water around the plant and eventually swirl into place on the female flower. They have some specific gravity as that of water. They float below the surface of water and pollination by water occurs in … None of the above. The pollen grains can float below the surface of water. Specific gravity of pollen grains is equal to that of water, so they float on water. It usually flowers in late summer, dispersing threadlike pollen grains into the sea. Gynoecium (?pseudo) monomerous; ostensibly of one carpel; superior. The pollinia of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) In Zostera, the marine angiosperm, the pollen grains are long ribbon-like and without exine. Zostera marina is a submerged marine sea grass and pollination takes place under water. Log in. The pollen grains can, therefore, float below the surface of water. Ask your question. Carpel apically stigmatic; 1 ovuled. Zostera pollen is elongated. Endosperm cell – 30; Micropyle is minute opening in the ovule of a seed plant through which the pollen tube usually enters. Pollen tube grows through the tissues of stigma and style and reaches the ovary. Pollination by biotic agent • Majority of flowering plants use a range if animals as pollinating agents. Over to you . Eg: In Vallisneria ,Female flowers reach water surface to ensure pollination. The condition of flowers whose male parts mature before the female ones. look like the helicopter-esque fruits of maple trees. Gynoecium ostensibly 1 carpelled (but subject to fanciful alternative interpretations). Ephydrophilous (i.e. den Hartog C (1970) The Sea-grasses of the World. Protandry is the condition in which an organism begins life as a male and then changes into a female. Conidia are formed endogenously while zoospores are formed endogenously. [True/False] Answer/Explanation. Water pollination (hydrophily) Water-pollinated plants are aquatic and pollen is released into the water. Zostera marina is found on sandy substrates or in estuaries, usually submerged or partially floating.Most Zostera are perennial.They have long, bright green, ribbon-like leaves, the width of which are about 1 centimetre (0.4 in). The pistil 1 celled. Stigma is long, sticky but wettable. Depending upon the source of pollen grain, pollination is of three types: ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. • In sea grains, the flowers are submerged. subaquatic-pollinated) pollen grains are filiform. Join now. C. The pollen grains can float below the surface of water. Pollen tube oddities. 1. Embryo sac → Nucellus → Integuments, is the correct sequence of parts in the ovule of an angiosperms. They have the same specific gravity as that of water, therefore float below the surface of water. Multilocus … Short stems grow up from extensive, white branching rhizomes.The flowers are enclosed in the sheaths of the leaf bases; the fruits are bladdery and can float. In Zostera, the marine angiosperm (Sea Grass), the pollen grains are long ribon-like (upto 2500 mm) and without exine. The pollen grains are long, needle like. Embryo sac → Nucellus → Integuments, is the correct sequence of parts in the ovule of an angiosperms. Seagrasses produce the longest pollen grains on the planet (up to 5mm long compared to under 0.1mm for land plants typically), and this pollen often collects into stringy clumps. Ecology. Epihydrophily : Pollination occurs on the surface of water. photo credit: wikimedia commons. They have the same specific gravity as that of water. Zostera pollen is well known, but the species rarely flower in this country ; male flowers were collected by Miss L. B. Moore and myself at Doubtful Sound in 1940, but were lost on the same trip. pollen grains of the genera Thalassia and Halophila. The pollen was stored at room temperature in seawater and subsamples were extracted at hourly intervals. Zostera is a totally submerged marine angiosperm. Competition for pollinators has led to plants exploiting a huge range of animals, as well as wind and water. Explain pollination in zostera Get the answers you need, now! 3. Answer: Explaination: True. The specific gravity of the pollen is same as that of sea water, so that, the pollen floats freely at any depth. Other adaptations are the elon- gate hypanthia of Thalassia and Halophila, the long styles in Halophila and Halodule, and the very long stigmata in Cyrnodocea, Amphibolis and Thalassia. The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Ex: Elodes, Hydrilla, Vallisneria. The pollen tube penetrates the stigma surface between the receptive cells and a collar of stigma wall material surrounds the tube at this point. Pollen grains nonaperturate; 2-celled, or 3-celled. Pollen grains are long, without exine, heavier than water , sink down to meet stigma of female flowers. Some of the pollen grains reach the female’s stigma by the passive water current. Pollen grains are light and non-wettable due to presence of mucilage cover. • Pollen grains are protected from wetting by mucilaginous covering. The clumps are moved by currents until they land on the pistil of a female flower and fertilization takes place. Pollen grains in many such species are long, ribbon like and they are carried passively inside the water; some of them reach the stigma and achieve pollination 29) Differentiate between Autogamy, Geitonogamy and Xenogamy Ans. 1. Their flowers tend to be small and inconspicuous with lots of pollen grains and large, feathery stigmas to catch the pollen. In Zostera, the pollen grains are long and ribbon-like and released inside the water. Join now. In water pollination, the male anther sheds its pollen grains on the water surface. The pollen grains spread over large and they are lighter. Examples: Zostera marina and Ceratophyllum. 29. 29. There often appears to be a direct relation between size and number of pollen produced per anther. Wave exposure can also influence the sediment grain size, with areas of high wave exposure having coarser sediments with lower nutrient concentrations. It's free to sign up and bid on jobs. Water currents therefore act as a pollen vector in a similar way to wind currents. De Cock AWAM (1978) Germination of the thread like pollen grains of the seagrass Zostera marina L. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France Actualités Botaniques 1–2: 145–148 Google Scholar. Autogamy (Self-pollination): It is the kind of pollination in which the pollen from the anthers of a flower is transferred to the stigma of the same flower, e.g., wheat, rice, pea, etc.
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